Lecture (05) Boolean Algebra and Logic Gates


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1 Lecture (05) Boolean Algebra and Logic Gates By: Dr. Ahmed ElShafee ١ Minterms and Maxterms consider two binary variables x and y combined with an AND operation. Since eachv ariable may appear in either form, there are four possible combinations: xy, x y, xy, and x y. Each of these four AND terms is called a minterm, or a standard product For any n variables can be combined to form 2 n minterms. The binary numbers from 0 to 2 n 1 are listed under the n variables n variables forming an OR term, provide 2 n possible combinations, called maxterms, or standard sums ٢
2 ٣ A Boolean function can be expressed algebraically from a given truth table by forming a minterm for each combination of the variables that produces a 1 in the function and then taking the OR of all those terms. Any Boolean function can be expressed as a sum of minterms ٤
3 f1 in Table is determined by expressing the combinations 001, 100, and 111 as x y z, xy z, and xyz, respectively. Since each one of these minterms results in f1 = 1, ٥ ٦
4 The complement of f1 is, sum of minterms that produce 0 ٧ If we take the complement of f ٨
5 ٩ Boolean functions expressed as a sum of minterms or product of maxterms are said to be in canonical form. ١٠
6 Expressing Boolean function as sum of minterm A. Sum of minterms Methods 1: If the function is not in this form, it can be made so by first expanding the expression into a sum of AND terms. Each term is then inspected to see if it contains all the variables. If it misses one or more variables, it is ANDed with an expression such as x + x, where x is one of the missing variables ١١ Example 01 Express the Boolean function F = A + B C as a sum of minterms. The function has three variables: A, B, and C. ١٢
7 The first term A is missing two variables This function is still missing one variable, so The second term BC is missing one variable; Combining all terms, we have ١٣ But AB C appears twice, and according to theorem (x + x = x), it is sometimes convenient to express the function in the following brief notation: stands for the ORing ١٤
8 Method 2: An alternative procedure for deriving the minterms of a Boolean function is to obtain the truth table of the function directly from the algebraic expression and then read the minterms from the truth table ١٥ Example 01 Express the Boolean function F = A + B C as a sum of minterms. The function has three variables: A, B, and C. ١٦
9 From the truth table, we can then read the five minterms of ١٧ the function to be 1, 4, 5, 6, and 7. B. Products of maxterm To express a Boolean function as a product of maxterms, done by using the distributive law, x + yz = (x + y)(x + z). ١٨
10 Example 02 Express the Boolean function F = xy + x z as a product of maxterms. ١٩ The function has three variables: x, y, and z. Each OR term is missing one variable; therefore Combining all the terms and removing those which appear more than once ٢٠
11 convenient way to express this function is as follows ٢١ Conversion between Canonical Forms The complement of a function expressed as the sum of minterms equals the sum 0, which are missing from the original function if we take the complement of F by DeMorgan s theorem it is clear that the following relation holds ٢٢ maxterm with subscript j is a complement of the minterm with the same subscript j and vice versa
12 general conversion procedure: To convert from one canonical form to another, interchange the symbols and and list those numbers missing from the original form. Considering that the total number of minterms or maxterms is 2 n, ٢٣ Example 03 Express the Boolean function as a sum of minterms. And product of maxterms ٢٤
13 ٢٥ c. Standard Forms function may contain one, two, or any number of literals Form sum of products or products of sums. logic diagram of a sum of products expression consists of a group of AND gates followed by a single OR gate. logic diagram of a product of sum expression consists of a group of OR gates followed by a single AND gate. ٢٦
14 2 ٢٧ Standard sumofproduct Nonstandard form ٢٨
15 Other logic Operations there are 2 2n functions for n binary variables for two variables, n = 2, and the number of possible Boolean functions is 16. the AND and OR functions are only 2 of a total of 16 possible functions formed with two binary variables to find the other 14 functions, The truth tables for the 16 functions formed with two binary variables, each colulm contains one possible function for the two variables, x and y. ٢٩ The 16 functions listed can be subdivided into three categories: 1. Two functions that produce a constant 0 or Four functions with unary operations: complement and transfer. 3. Ten functions with binary operators that define eight different operations: AND, OR, NAND, NOR, exclusive OR, equivalence, inhibition, and implication. ٣٠
16 ٣١ Digital logic gates ٣٢
17 ٣٣ All gates except for the inverter and buffer can be extended to have more than two inputs. The NAND and NOR functions are commutative but not associative ٣٤
18 ٣٥ he multiple NOR (or NAND) gate as a complemented OR (or AND) gate ٣٦
19 expression is obtained from one of DeMorgan s theorems. It also shows that an expression in sum of products form can be implemented with NAND gates. ٣٧ exclusive OR and equivalence gates are both commutative and associative and can be extended to more than two inputs. is normally implemented by cascading two input gates, ٣٨
20 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS An integrated circuit (IC) is fabricated on a die of a silicon semiconductor crystal, called a chip, containing the electronic components for constructing digital gates. Digital ICs are often categorized according to the complexity of their circuits, according to the number of logic gates in a single package. Small scale integration (SSI) devices contain several independent gates in a single package, The number of gates is usually fewer than 10 and is limited by the number of pins available in the IC. ٣٩ Medium scale integration (MSI) devices have a complexity of approximately 10 to 1,000 gates in a single package. Like decoders, adders, multiplexers, registers and counters Large scale integration (LSI) devices contain thousands of gates in a single package. such as processors, memory chips, and programmable logic devices. Very large scale integration (VLSI) devices now contain millions of gates within a single package Like large memory arrays and complex microcomputer ٤٠
21 Digital integrated circuits are classified by the specific circuit technology to which they belong TTL is a logic family that has been in use for many years and is considered to be standard. ECL has an advantage in systems requiring high speed operation. MOS is suitable for circuits that need high component density ٤١ CMOS is preferable in systems requiring low power consumption, such as digital cameras, personal media players, and other handheld portable devices, are essential for VLSI design ٤٢
22 IC specs: Fan out specifies the number of standard loads that the output of a typical gate Fan in is the number of inputs available in a gate. Power dissipation is the power consumed by the gate that must be available from the power supply. Propagation delay is the average transition delay time for a signal to propagate from input to output. ٤٣ VLSI: The design of digital systems with VLSI circuits containing millions of transistors and gates is an enormous and difficult task. Task is impossible to develop and verify without the assistance of computer aided design (CAD) tools, Electronic design automation (EDA) covers all phases of the design of integrated circuits. CAD systems include an editing program for creating and modifying schematic diagrams called schematic capture ٤٤
23 Custom made ICs There are a variety of options available for creating the physical realization of a digital circuit in silicon. The designer can choose between an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), a field programmable gate array (FPGA), a programmable logic device (PLD), and a full custom IC. Hardware description language (HDL), a computer programming language, but is specifically oriented to describing digital hardware ٤٥ Thanks,.. See you next week (ISA), ٤٦
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